SPRING AND SUMMER
Plant the bud union 5 cm below the soil line.
Fertilize with Transplanter 5-15-5.
After three or four weeks, change to a brand name rose food. Established roses should be fed every week from early spring to late August. On the premise that prevention is easier than a cure, spray once per week with insecticide/fungicide.
FALL OR EARLY WINTER
Change from rose food to 0-0-20 (straight potassium) for overwintering vigour. Let the last flowers go to seed; do not prune.
When the ground is frozen, (not too early, mid- to late November) hill up the rose canes with soil, which you have kept unfrozen for this specific purpose, to a height of 45 cm. Do not prune at this time, unless the canes are so tall they could whip about in the winter winds, thereby damaging themselves or disturbing the hill of protective soil. Leave as much cane as possible. In beds or in mass plantings, rose collars are a must, — they are easy to use and reduce the amount of soil required. Where collars are not used, the hill of soil, once frozen, should be covered with evergreen boughs after Christmas so that the soil remains frozen and does not thaw in mild spells.
THE FOLLOWING SPRING
Remove the collar and then the soil as it thaws.
Cut back the strongest canes to 10 or 15 cm, cutting to an outward facing bud.
Start to fertilize when growth begins. Everblooming roses need to be well nourished.
The rose bed or planting hole should be well-prepared. Dig deep, at least 45 cm. The soil should be two parts sandy clay loam, one part well-composted manure and one part peat moss, plus 4 kg of bonemeal for every 10 square metres or, a cupful for each plant.
For disease- and insect-free roses, a combination fungicide/insecticide spray should be applied every week, commencing in spring as soon as buds begin to swell and growth begins.
Start thinking of over-wintering your roses in mid-July at the time of your last fertilization. The rose canes should be allowed to harden off; they should not be succulent. Reduce the watering schedule in the fall. Allow the last flush of flowers on the plant to go to seed.
DEPTH OF PLANTING
Choice roses are produced by budding selected types to hardy rootstock. The bud union, which may look like a swollen portion at the bottom of the canes, should, in our Canadian climate, be planted one or two inches below the soil. Be aware that American or English publications may specify the union above the soil.
Cocoa bean shells make an excellent mulch for roses. They dress the bed, conserve moisture and keep down weeds. Other suitable mulches include bark chunks or shredded bark.
Newly planted, potted roses shouldbe fertilized with diluted transplanter. Follow the label’s instructions. Established roses should be fertilized with a name brand rose food. These formulations contain many trace elements essential to the roses health. Apply in early May, mid-June and again in mid-July.
Roses should be watered deeply and well once per week. The best method in beds is to use a trickle hose that can be left on running slowly on the ground, thereby avoiding wetting of the foliage and splattering of the soil.
Store in a shaded area, keep roots evenly moist.
BALLED AND BURLAP
Plant any trees, shrubs, and evergreens, with the burlap/wire basket still on the roots.
SIZE OF PLANTING HOLE
Dig the planting hole at least 12cm larger than the root ball on all sides.
Leave the fibre pot on, make three cuts halfway up from the bottom of pot before planting.
Water thoroughly before removing the container.
PLANTING IN CLAY SOILS
To ensure drainage, enlarge the size of the hole and raise the level of planting 5-8cm above ground level using soil.
WATERING AFTER PLANTING
Plants grown in plastic pots need more frequent watering, check often. Deep watering is encouraged.
MULCHING AFTER PLANTING
Mulching your plants is encouraged.
STEPS TO SUCCESS
Plant the tree or shrub no deeper than it grew at the nursery.
It is necessary to plant trees and evergreens in a soil that offers good drainage. Therefore, if you are planting in an area with heavy clay soil, you must make certain modifications before planting.
It is vital to dig your planting hole at least 12 cm larger than the root ball on all sides to allow for soil enrichments before planting.
The high phosophorous Transplanter type fertilizer is
the only appropriate fertilizer to be used in the first season.
A good soil mix is 50 per cent soil, 25 per cent peat moss, 25 per cent manure.
You can help to prevent permanent damage or discoloration caused by desiccation (drying out) of evergreens by watering thoroughly in the fall, before freeze-up.
Water only when the soil feels dry to the touch, 5-8 cm down into the root area. Continue this form of watering until the plant is well established and growing. Divert downspouts and sprinklers away from planting area.